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VLTs drive revenue growth at OPAP in first half

first_img Tags: Online Gambling OTB and Betting Shops Subscribe to the iGaming newsletter VLTs drive revenue growth at OPAP in first half Finance 12th September 2019 | By contenteditor AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwittercenter_img Topics: Finance Lottery Sports betting Strong growth in revenue from OPAP’s video lottery terminal division has helped the Greek lottery and gaming operator report a year-on-year increase in revenue for the first half of the year, as well as offsetting a decline in sports betting revenue.Gross gaming revenue for the six months to June 30, 2019 amounted to €779.6m (£696.5m/$858.9m), 5.7% up from the €737.5m reported for the corresponding period last year.Lottery remains, by some margin, the primary source of income for OPAP, with this segment generating €379.3m in revenue during the first half, up 2.1% from €371.5m last year. Lottery was responsible for 48.7% of overall revenue in the period.However the VLTs business was the standout performer in H1, with revenue rising 56.5% year-on-year from €89.4m to €139.9m. As a result, this boosted its share of group revenue from 12.1% to 17.9%, with OPAP operating 20,035 machines across 365 gaming halls and 1,952 of its stores.This helped offset a weaker performance from sports betting, where revenue fell 5.2% from €202.4m to €191.9m. Instant and passive game revenue also slipped 7.6% from €74.2m to €68.5m.Alongside an overall increase in gross gaming revenue, OPAP was also able to cut costs in the first half, with operating expenses down from €147.1m to €138.4m.Marketing costs were reduced by 8.8% from €34.4m to €31.8m, while other operating expenses were also slashed by 13.0% from €74.3m to €64.6m during the period.However, OPAP did see payroll costs climb 10.6% from €38.4m to €42.4m. The operator said this was partly the result of a one-off cost of €2.8m linked with a small scale voluntary departure scheme, although this is expected to have a positive impact on overall payroll costs during the coming quarters.Higher revenue and lower costs boosted earnings for OPAP in the period, with gross profit from gaming operations rising 7.0% year-on-year from €288.1m to €308.4m.Earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortisation (EBITDA) was also up 26.2% from €157.4m to €198.7m, while net profit jumped 39.0% from €66.3m to €91.8m.“The OPAP team has delivered a solid performance in the first half of 2019 and we all believe we are well placed to sustain this momentum for the rest of 2019 and successfully fulfil our targets for the year,” OPAP’s chief executive, Damian Cope, said.Cope also praised the operator’s performance in the second quarter, during which revenue increased by 6.5% year-on-year to €383.6m, again mainly as a result of growth within the VLT business.Gross profit from gaming operations in the three months to June 30, 2019 was also up 8.6% to €152.3m, while EBITDA increased 28.0% on a like-for-like basis to €87.0m and net profit climbed 39.9% to €26.2m.“The delivery of our 2020 Vision, and the transformation of OPAP into a world class gaming entertainment company, continues apace with further improvements being seen across every part of our business,” Cope said.“Online remains a key area of focus as we further develop our dual strategy, via OPAP Online and our investment in Stoiximan Group. We are seeing good growth in the customer bases of both operations and are confident that we will continue to see growth from both businesses for some time to come.”OPAP is currently the subject of a €2.06bn takeover offer by Czech gaming and lottery giant Sazka Group. The bid was lodged in July, but it is not yet clear when a deal could be finalised.Also in July, OPAP moved to further strengthen its lottery arm by signing a binding Memorandum of Understanding to buy Intralot’s stake in the Hellenic Lotteries business for a total cost of €20m. Strong growth in revenue from OPAP’s video lottery terminal division has helped the Greek lottery and gaming operator report a year-on-year increase in revenue for the first half of the year, as well as offsetting a decline in sports betting revenue. Email Addresslast_img read more

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New African Properties Limited (NAP.bw) 2012 Annual Report

first_imgNew African Properties Limited (NAP.bw) listed on the Botswana Stock Exchange under the Property sector has released it’s 2012 annual report.For more information about New African Properties Limited (NAP.bw) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the New African Properties Limited (NAP.bw) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: New African Properties Limited (NAP.bw)  2012 annual report.Company ProfileNew African Properties Limited, listed on the Botswana Stock Exchange is a public variable rate loan stock company which offers investors the opportunity to share in a diversified portfolio of 64 well-established and well-positioned properties made up of a mix of retail, commercial and industrial properties with quality tenants. Its primary focus is the retail property sector. NAP aims to provide positive returns to investors by investing in appropriate retail properties; maintaining a profile of strong, quality tenants; maximising contractual rentals and minimising rental arrears, bad debts and vacancies; and optimising expenditure using a sound governance framework and skilled service providers. New African Properties Limited is a subsidiary of Cash Bazaar Holdings (Proprietary) Limited.last_img read more

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House in Bangalore / Cadence

first_img India Houses Save this picture!+ 24 Share ArchDaily CopyAbout this officeCadenceOfficeFollow#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesDabasBangaloreHouses3D ModelingIndiaPublished on July 15, 2009Cite: “House in Bangalore / Cadence” 15 Jul 2009. ArchDaily. Accessed 12 Jun 2021. ISSN 0719-8884Read commentsBrowse the CatalogPanels / Prefabricated AssembliesTechnowoodSiding Façade SystemWindowsMitrexSolar WindowMetal PanelsAurubisCopper Surface: Nordic DécorDining tablesB&B ItaliaDining Table – BullSkylightsVELUX CommercialModular Skylights – Atrium Longlight / RidgelightLouvers / ShuttersBruagShading Screens – Perforated Facade PanelsConcreteKrytonSmart ConcreteCompositesPure + FreeFormTechnical Guide – Creating a Seamless Interior and Exterior Material TransitionEnclosures / Double Skin FacadesFranken-SchotterFacade System –  LINEAWindowsRabel Aluminium SystemsMinimal Casement Windows – Rabel 8400 Slim Super Thermal PlusDoorsGorter HatchesFloor Door – Fire RatedWire MeshCarl Stahl DecorCableGreen Wall System – FAÇADESCAPE™More products »Read commentsSave想阅读文章的中文版本吗?班加罗尔住宅 / Cadence是否翻译成中文现有为你所在地区特制的网站?想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?Take me there »✖You’ve started following your first account!Did you know?You’ll now receive updates based on what you follow! Personalize your stream and start following your favorite authors, offices and users.Go to my stream ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/28876/house-in-bangalore-cadence Clipboard CopyHouses•Bangalore, India House in Bangalore / CadenceSave this projectSaveHouse in Bangalore / Cadence Area:  111 m²Text description provided by the architects. The 1,200 sq ft corner site presented us with the classic urban scenario. The site was abutted by houses on two sides and flanked by low income housing on the other two sides. The question thus posed to us was, “What would be the relationship of the dwelling to the outside?” Save this picture!Recommended ProductsEnclosures / Double Skin FacadesIsland Exterior FabricatorsCurtain Wall Facade SystemsWood Boards / HPL PanelsLamitechLamitech high pressure plastic laminateLouvers / ShuttersRabel Aluminium SystemsElectric Folding Shading System – Rabel 14000WoodEGGERLaminatesThe stand taken by us was to incorporate the “outside” inside while the building shuns the surroundings. A classic diagram of this would be the traditional courtyard house. Taking this classic diagram we moved the court to the corner to create new spacial and formal effects. By moving the court to the fourth quadrant of the square we cold magnify the boundaries of each program flanking the court i.e. the living room, the dining and the bedrooms would not only feel much bigger but also would have sectional relationship with the open to sky court. Save this picture!The court is further articulated by placing a sculptural element that would serve as an informal dining area as well as a tub housing a tree. The jali wall cast in-situ completes the fourth corner to accentuate the experience of the court.Save this picture!Project gallerySee allShow lessASAE 2009: Communicating ArchitectureArticlesSunbeams Music Center / Napper ArchitectsArticles Share ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/28876/house-in-bangalore-cadence Clipboard Architects: Cadence Area Area of this architecture project Projects House in Bangalore / Cadence “COPY” “COPY”last_img read more

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Big Society Capital announces £15m investment for community-led housing projects

first_img Tagged with: Finance Funding About Melanie May Melanie May is a journalist and copywriter specialising in writing both for and about the charity and marketing services sectors since 2001. She can be reached via www.thepurplepim.com. Big Society Capital announces £15m investment for community-led housing projects AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis17  76 total views,  2 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis17 Melanie May | 14 December 2016 | News Big Society Capital is to invest £15m into community-led housing project through its newly launched Community-led Housing Facility.Big Society Capital will co-invest the funds with three junior social investors’ investments into large-scale, mainly urban community-led housing projects designed to deliver affordable housing that meets local need. The co-investment facility aims to increase the development capital that is available in the market in order to help more projects reach completion, and will also aim to attract further investment.FSE Group, Northstar Ventures and Social and Sustainable Capital (SASC) will be the first group of social investors to access the Facility in order to invest in projects that need more than £1m of investment. It will also be supported by other co-investors across social banks, local authorities, foundations and other grant-makers, with the potential to increase the amount available to community-led housing projects to £75 million, according to Big Society Capital.The Facility’s launch follows a number of investments that Big Society Capital has made in an attempt to help address the growing need for affordable housing. Earlier this year, it invested £15m into Funding Affordable Homes with Salamanca Group, as well as £15m into the National Homelessness Property Fund in partnership with homelessness charity St Mungo’s Broadway and social investor Resonance.Catherine Harrington, director of the National Community Land Trust Network said:“There are now 225 Community Land Trusts (CLTs), having grown six-fold in six years, 700 homes have been built and there are now nearly 3000 homes in the pipeline. However, as a relatively new model of housing delivery, CLTs continue to face significant challenges that prevent the movement from making a more significant contribution to housing supply including access to sufficient capital from social investors.“This facility is an important step in ensuring that the community-led housing sector has access to sufficient development finance on appropriate terms. We look forward to Big Society Capital and other investors supporting the sector to achieve scale.”  75 total views,  1 views today Advertisementlast_img read more

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Charitable Bookings to donate £20k for downloads of its app

first_imgCharitable Bookings to donate £20k for downloads of its app  182 total views,  2 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis3  181 total views,  1 views today Advertisement About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving. Charitable Bookings, the “free philanthropic lifestyle app”, is marking #givingtuesday by donating £1 to charity for every person who downloads its free app. It will keep its promotion running until £20,000 has been donated to good causes.It is inviting charities to encourage their supporters to download the app and choose their charity to receive the £1.To help in this promotion it has produced three graphic ads which charities can post to social media or mail out to their supporters. They are happy for charities to add their logo to the artwork. Tagged with: affiliate marketing app FREE The £1 per download donation is simply for the download. You don’t need to use it for fundraising to unlock the donation.Of course, Charitable Bookings is encouraging charities and donors to use the app and platform for fundraising citing campaigns that have raised:£2,173 for the Helen & Douglas House children’s Hospice£722 for the Brain Tumour Charity£1,496 for Hospitality ActionYou can download the app for iOS and Android. Howard Lake | 1 December 2017 | News AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis3last_img read more

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Fannie Mae Forecasts Economic Growth in 2015 Despite Ending Year On a Low Note

first_imgHome / Daily Dose / Fannie Mae Forecasts Economic Growth in 2015 Despite Ending Year On a Low Note Demand Propels Home Prices Upward 2 days ago Fannie Mae’s Economic & Strategic Research Group predicts in its December 2014 Economic Outlook that the U.S. economy will strengthen heading into 2015 following an up-and-down 2014 that ended on an unspectacular note.The Group is forecasting full-year growth of 2.1 percent for 2014, a full point below 2013’s rate of growth, due to the reverse in the final quarter of some unsustainable forces that boosted the economy in the third quarter. However, the Group is predicting economic growth of 2.7 percent for 2015 based on firming consumer income prospects, rising consumer and business confidence, a broadening housing recovery, and reduced fiscal headwinds.”The December forecast is relatively little changed from the November forecast. We expect a weaker fourth quarter to follow a stronger third quarter, but we don’t see it as a sign of overall weakness,” Fannie Mae chief economist Doug Duncan said. “Although real consumer spending growth has disappointed this year, it appears poised to accelerate in November due to a significant jump in auto sales and a likely pick-up in home heating costs. The decrease in oil prices certainly may support consumer spending over time, particularly now during the holiday shopping season, as well as hold down inflation as a potential benefit to consumption. Based on the stronger consumer story that we expect to see in 2015 relative to 2014, we upgraded our forecast from approximately 2.5 percent growth to 2.7 percent growth for the full year.”Duncan said the housing market is expected to continue its slow rate of growth toward long-term recovery in 2015 coming off a sub-par 2014. He said stronger employment and improvement in household-related income is expected to lead in a boost in housing starts.”As a result, that may help to unfold some of the suppressed household formation numbers and incent builders to meet some of that increased demand,” Duncan said. “For all of 2015, we expect total housing starts to increase by about 22 percent and total home sales to rise approximately 5 percent, with total mortgage originations ticking up slightly to $1.13 trillion.” The Week Ahead: Nearing the Forbearance Exit 2 days ago December 18, 2014 901 Views Data Provider Black Knight to Acquire Top of Mind 2 days ago The Best Markets For Residential Property Investors 2 days ago Servicers Navigate the Post-Pandemic World 2 days ago Demand Propels Home Prices Upward 2 days ago Governmental Measures Target Expanded Access to Affordable Housing 2 days ago in Daily Dose, Featured, Government, News Related Articles Previous: Underwater Borrower Rate Drops Below 17 Percent Next: DS News Webcast: Friday 12/19/2014 Governmental Measures Target Expanded Access to Affordable Housing 2 days agocenter_img Tagged with: Fannie Mae Fannie Mae Economic & Strategic Research Group Housing Market U.S. Economy Servicers Navigate the Post-Pandemic World 2 days ago Fannie Mae Forecasts Economic Growth in 2015 Despite Ending Year On a Low Note The Best Markets For Residential Property Investors 2 days ago Data Provider Black Knight to Acquire Top of Mind 2 days ago Brian Honea’s writing and editing career spans nearly two decades across many forms of media. He served as sports editor for two suburban newspaper chains in the DFW area and has freelanced for such publications as the Yahoo! Contributor Network, Dallas Home Improvement magazine, and the Dallas Morning News. He has written four non-fiction sports books, the latest of which, The Life of Coach Chuck Curtis, was published by the TCU Press in December 2014. A lifelong Texan, Brian received his master’s degree from Amberton University in Garland. About Author: Brian Honea Fannie Mae Fannie Mae Economic & Strategic Research Group Housing Market U.S. Economy 2014-12-18 Brian Honea  Print This Post Sign up for DS News Daily Share Save Subscribelast_img read more

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Lack Of Prior Consent From State Govt. Would Not Vitiate CBI Investigation If No Prejudice Is Caused To Accused: Supreme Court

first_imgTop StoriesLack Of Prior Consent From State Govt. Would Not Vitiate CBI Investigation If No Prejudice Is Caused To Accused: Supreme Court LIVELAW NEWS NETWORK17 Nov 2020 7:20 AMShare This – xThe CBI investigation is not vitiated merely for not obtaining prior consent of the State Government under Section 6 of the DSPE Act (in addition to general consent which was in force), unless it is shown that prejudice has been caused to the accused, the Supreme Court has observed.This case pertains to charge sheet filed against a company and some public officials by the Central Bureau…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginThe CBI investigation is not vitiated merely for not obtaining prior consent of the State Government under Section 6 of the DSPE Act (in addition to general consent which was in force), unless it is shown that prejudice has been caused to the accused, the Supreme Court has observed.This case pertains to charge sheet filed against a company and some public officials by the Central Bureau of Investigation under Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988. The State of Uttar Pradesh has accorded a general consent for extension of powers and jurisdiction of the Members of DSPE, in the whole of State of Uttar Pradesh for investigation of offences under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988 and attempts, abetments and conspiracies in relation to all or any of the offence or offences committed in the course of the transaction and arising out of the same facts. However, no such investigation shall be taken up in cases relating to the public servants, under the control of the State Government, except with prior permission of the State Government.Before the High Court, the accused-public servants’ contention was that the failure in obtaining the consent prior to registration of the FIR would go to the root of the matter and vitiate the entire investigation. As the High court dismissed their petitions, they approached the Supreme Court contending that in the absence of the consent of the State Government under Section 6 of the DSPE Act, the DSPE (CBI) had no powers to conduct investigation in view of the provisions contained in Section 6 of the DSPE Act.On the other hand, the state contended that the prior consent under Section 6 of the DSPE Act is not mandatory but directory.Addressing this contention, the bench comprising Justices AM Khanwilkar and BR Gavai, referred to the decision in H.N. Rishbud and Inder Singh v. The State of Delhi, and observed thus:”It could thus be seen, that this Court has held, that the cognizance and the trial cannot be set aside unless the illegality in the investigation can be shown to have brought about miscarriage of justice. It has been held, that the illegality may have a bearing on the question of prejudice or miscarriage of justice but the invalidity of the investigation has no relation to the competence of the court.””It could thus be seen, that this Court held that even for the sake of argument that CBI had committed an error or irregularity in submitting the charge- sheet without the approval of CVC, the cognizance taken by the learned Special Judge on the basis of such a charge-sheet, would not be set aside nor could further proceedings in pursuance thereof be quashed.”The court further noted that there are no pleadings by the public servants with regard to the prejudice caused to them on account of non-obtaining of prior consent under Section 6 of the DSPE Act qua them specifically in addition to the general consent in force, nor with regard to miscarriage of justice.Therefore, the bench refused to interfere with the finding of the High Court with regard to not obtaining prior consent of the State Government under Section 6 of the DSPE Act. However, it noted that the High Court has not answered some of the issues framed by it and therefore remitted the case back to it.CASE: FERTICO MARKETING AND INVESTMENT PVT. LTD. vs. CENTRAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION [CRIMINAL APPEAL NOS. 760- 764 OF 2020] CORAM: Justices AM Khanwilkar and BR GavaiCOUNSEL: Sr. Adv Mukul Rohatgi,Sr. Adv Ajit Kumar Sinha, ASG S.V. Raju Click here to Read/Download JudgmentRead JudgmentNext Storylast_img read more

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Suspect allegedly confesses to strangling childhood friend for inheritance money

first_imgPattanaphong Khuankaew/iStock(WASHINGTON) — Emotions ran high Thursday when prosecutors played jurors an alleged confession tape in which they say their suspect describes murdering a childhood friend for her inheritance money.Sarah Stern was a promising young artist when she went missing at the age of 19 from her New Jersey home in December 2016.Months later, her childhood friend Liam McAtasney was charged for allegedly strangling her and enlisting Stern’s prom date to help throw her body off a nearby bridge crossing Shark River in Belmar, New Jersey. Her body was never found.In court Thursday, prosecutors played what they say is a confession tape where McAtasney allegedly admits to the killing.“It took me half an hour to kill her,” McAtasney can be heard saying in the tape.Prosecutors say McAtasney planned Stern’s death for sixth months and his aim was to get to Stern’s lockbox, which he believed was stuffed with cash.“The worst part of it is I thought I was walking out [with] $50,000 to $100,000 in my pocket,” McAtasney allegedly said in the tape. “She had one safe that she took money out [of], and she only had $10,000.”Police secretly recorded the video in a sting operation using McAtasney’s friend Anthony Curry.Police say Curry told them that McAtasney approached him in January 2017 about a week before the murder. McAtasney allegedly told Curry about his plan to kill and rob Stern of the money she inherited after her mother died.Police had Curry arrange a face-to-face meeting with McAtasney and then set up a video recording device in Curry’s car.McAtasney can be seen in the video allegedly describing in gruesome detail how he choked Stern for half an hour while she struggled to stay alive, before stealing her lockbox and throwing her body off the bridge with the help of accomplice Preston Taylor.McAtasney’s attorneys say their client fabricated the story for a horror film that Curry, who’s a young filmmaker, was working on.McAtasney was asked about Stern’s whereabouts in videos recorded on police body cameras just hours after Stern’s disappearance.“I just know she’s been trying to get away, been telling me she’s moving to Canada,” McAtasney said to police at the time.Prosecutors say he intentionally misled investigators, hoping to throw them off.Preston Taylor, Stern’s prom date and McAtasney’s former roommate, has already pleaded guilty to first-degree robbery, second-degree conspiracy to commit robbery, and second-degree disturbing or desecrating human remains. Taylor has testified against McAtasney.He said McAtasney told him Stern had the “type of money somebody would kill for” and that he planned to get her drunk and take the money left by her mother.McAtasney has denied all charges brought against him and is facing life in prison without the possibility of parole if convicted.The defense is expected to present their case next week.Copyright © 2019, ABC Radio. All rights reservedlast_img read more

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California wildfires force evacuations as fierce winds fuel the blazes

first_imgABC News(NEW YORK) — Wildfires are erupting across California, fueled by dry air, fierce winds and high temperatures.Over 190,000 California customers are in the dark Thursday as power companies preemptively cut electricity in an attempt to keep fires from starting.The Kincade wildfire began in Sonoma County in Northern California’s wine country Wednesday night.As winds reached up to 76 mph, the blaze exploded to a massive 10,000 acres overnight.The Kincade fire is 0 percent contained and the cause is under investigation.Cal Fire spokesperson Amy Head said the fire is wind driven and it’s hard for crews to keep up.“We just can’t keep ahead of it … we are almost chasing it and trying to catch up with it,” she said Thursday morning.The community of Geyserville is under mandatory orders to evacuate immediately, the Sonoma County Sheriff’s Office warned Thursday.In Southern California, winds are expected to be even stronger due to the higher mountain range, creating Santa Ana winds.In San Bernardino County, which is inland from Los Angeles, the Old Water fire is threatening homes as winds gust up to 50 mph.The blaze has consumed 75 acres and is 0% contained.The Old Water fire has closed schools and forced residents of about 80 homes to evacuate.A heat advisory is also in effect in Southern California with temperatures expected to reach the 90s from San Diego to Los Angeles. Dry air, high temperatures and winds all contribute to the spread of wildfires.Copyright © 2019, ABC Audio. All rights reserved.last_img read more

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Experimental fracture and mechanical properties of Antarctic ice: preliminary results

first_imgAn experimental study of the fracture mechanics and rheology of ice from the Ronne Ice Shelf, Antarctica, is currently being undertaken. The apparent critical stress-intensity factor (or apparent fracture toughness, K Q) for crack propagation has been measured using a three-point bend method for inducing crack growth perpendicular to the axis of cylindrical ice-core specimens. Tensile crack nucleation under applied uniaxial compressive stress has also been evaluated. Both methods have allowed a profile of ice elastic and fracture properties with depth through the ice shelf to be constructed. Preliminary results indicate that the measured elastic modulus increases with depth through the firn and upper meteoric ice before reaching a constant value in the deeper, dense meteoric and basal marine ice. The resistance to fracture, as measured by changes in apparent fracture toughness and crack-nucleation stress, increases with depth right through the firn and meteoric ice layers. A simple fracture mechanics model applied to the Ronne Ice Shelf indicates that crevasses form from small surface cracks, less than 40 cm deep, which quickly grow to depths of 40‐60m and then remain stable.last_img read more

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