An artificial pancreas system that closely mimics the body’s blood sugar control mechanism was able to maintain near-normal glucose levels without causing hypoglycemia in a small group of patients.The system, combining a blood glucose monitor and insulin pump technology with software that directs administration of insulin and the blood-sugar-raising hormone glucagon, was developed at Boston University (BU).The first clinical trial of the system was conducted by Harvard researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and confirmed the feasibility of an approach utilizing doses of both hormones. In their report, appearing in Science Translational Medicine, the researchers also found unexpectedly large differences in insulin absorption rates between study participants, differences they were able to account for by adjustments to the system.“This is the first study to test an artificial pancreas using both insulin and glucagon in people with type 1 diabetes. It showed that, by delivering both hormones in response to frequent blood sugar tests, it is possible to control blood sugar levels without hypoglycemia, even after high-carbohydrate meals,” says Steven Russell, a Harvard Medical School (HMS) instructor in medicine in the MGH Diabetes Unit, who co-led the research team with Edward Damiano of the BU Department of Biomedical Engineering.In type 1 diabetes, the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas are destroyed by the immune system, requiring insulin treatment to regulate blood sugar levels. Intensive glucose control involving frequent blood sugar testing and insulin administration can delay or prevent long-term complications – such as retinal damage, kidney failure, or cardiovascular disease – but is extremely demanding and difficult to maintain. Continuous glucose monitors and insulin pumps can help, but patients remain at risk for hypoglycemia, a potentially life-threatening drop in blood sugar caused by too much insulin.Because any administration of insulin, even by an artificial pancreas system, has been associated with the risk of hypoglycemia, BU investigators Damiano and lead author Firas El-Khatib developed a system that both accounts for the rate of insulin absorption and also incorporates glucagon, a hormone naturally released by the pancreas to raise blood sugar levels. While the alpha cells of the pancreas that produce glucagon are not destroyed in people with type 1 diabetes, the cells no longer release glucagon in response to low blood sugar.“Large doses of glucagon are used as a rescue drug for people with severely low blood sugar,” explains Damiano. “Our system is designed to counteract moderate drops in blood sugar with minute doses of glucagon spread out throughout the day, just as the body does in people without diabetes.” In 2007 Damiano’s team tested the system in diabetic pigs, which led to FDA approval of the human trial.The current study enrolled 11 adults with type 1 diabetes and was primarily designed to test the software that controls the system. To get the most accurate glucose levels, the system used a monitor that directly reads blood sugar through a sensor placed into a vein instead of a continuous glucose monitor that takes readings under the skin.Participants’ blood sugar was controlled by the system for 27 hours, during which time they ate three standardized, high-carbohydrate meals and slept through the night at the hospital. While the system kept glucose levels close to the target range for six participants, five others experienced hypoglycemia significant enough that they needed a dose of orange juice to raise their blood sugar.Close analysis of participants’ blood-insulin levels revealed a nearly fourfold difference in the rate at which individuals absorbed and cleared the fast-acting insulin used in the study, with some rates of absorption being much slower than anticipated. Since the controlling software determined dosage based on the expected rate of insulin absorption, participants who absorbed at a slower rate received excessive doses, leading to hypoglycemia.A test of participants’ response to a single insulin injection verified that some had consistently slow and some consistently fast rates of insulin absorption. Rates of absorption also varied too much from experiment to experiment, even on an individual basis, to allow participant-specific dosage calculations.After globally adjusting the software parameters to a slower insulin absorption rate, the researchers conducted repeat experiments in the same participants. This time none of the slow-absorption participants experienced hypoglycemia significant enough to require intervention. Blood-sugar levels were only slightly higher in repeat experiments involving participants with fast insulin absorption, showing that the adjusted software parameters were effective for all study participants and may be adequate for everyone with type 1 diabetes.The elimination of episodes of hypoglycemia in repeat experiments involving the same participants affirmed that the initial mismatch between parameter settings and insulin absorption rate had been the cause of the hypoglycemia. All previous reported studies of artificial pancreas systems have included episodes of hypoglycemia, but this is the first study to confirm and address the cause of that hypoglycemia.Later this spring the researchers will begin a follow-up study with a system using the revised settings and driven by an FDA-approved continuous glucose monitor. Those experiments will last more than 48 hours and include children as well as adults. The investigators also plan to compare the insulin/glucagon system with a version that uses only insulin. “The device we ultimately envision will be wearable and incorporate a glucose sensor inserted under the skin that communicates wirelessly with a pump about the size of a cell phone,” says Harvard’s Russel. “The pump would administer insulin and probably glucagon, and would contain a microchip that runs the control software.”Damiano, whose 11-year-old son was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes at the age of 1, adds, “a system like this would replace the need for people to constantly check their blood sugar and to make treatment decisions every few hours. It would need to be maintained but could take over the decision-making process, closely emulating a functioning pancreas. It wouldn’t be a cure, but it has the potential to be the ultimate evolution of insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes.” Damiano is an associate professor of Biomedical Engineering at Boston University.The study was supported by grants from the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, the Wallace H. Coulter Foundation, the Charlton Fund for Innovative Research in Diabetes and the National Center for Research Resources. Co-authors of the paper are David M. Nathan, MD, professor of medicine at HMS and director of the MGH Diabetes Center, and Robert Sutherlin, RN, also of the MGH Diabetes Center.
Kolkata: The All India Football Federation (AIFF) has decided to send legendary footballer IM Vijayans name for Padma Shri Award to the sports ministry, a top official has said. Former India captain Vijayan, 51, was the recipient of Arjuna Award in 2003. A three-time AIFF player of the year, Vijayan is one of the most skillful footballers the country has ever produced. The Padma Shri is the fourth-highest civilian honour after the Bharat Ratna, Padma Vibhushan and Padma Bhushan. Vijayan played 79 matches for India between 1992 and 2003, and scored 40 goals. The reticent Thrissur born-footballer formed a prolific strike partnership for India alongside Bhaichung Bhutia and helped the team score various vital goals in international tournaments. Vijayan was part of the victorious Indian team in the 1999 South Asian Football Federation Cup and scored one of the fastest international goals in history during the tournament, finding the back of the the net against Bhutan after just 12 seconds. Vijayan also finished as the top scorer in the Afro-Asian Games event held in India in 2003 with four goals. Vijayan formally retired from international football after the Afro-Asian Games of 2003. At the club level, some of Vijayan’s best performances early on in his career came in a Kerala Police football club shirt, his first team. Vijayan dished out brilliant performances for Kerala Police at Quilon Nationals 1987, and was able to impress the national football fraternity very soon with his impeccable skills and highly aggressive style of playing. IANSAlso watch: In an Exclusive Conversation with Krishnaraaz only on The Sentinel Assam
Share Share HKJC closes OCBBs amid rising public health concerns July 13, 2020 Submit Related Articles StumbleUpon MansionBet adds Bristol City to sponsorship portfolio August 20, 2020 W88 secures Crystal Palace front-of-shirt sponsorship August 3, 2020 South London Premier League football club Crystal Palace FC, continues to expand its commercial presence within Asian markets announcing its first ever ‘shirt sleeve’ sponsorship with Chinese football app Dongqiudi.Starting this 2017/18 EPL season, the Dongqiudi logo will appear on the ‘Eagles’ home and away football jerseys, featuring on the left sleeve.Crystal Palace management announced the new sponsorship, as the football club tours Asia in which it will play the ‘Premier League Asia Trophy’ at the Hong Kong Stadium.Launched in 2013, Dongqiudi is a popular Chinese football app, which brings extensive information of international football matches and competitions. The app further engages its audience by creating social clubs for Chinese f fans to discuss and debate all things football.To date, Dongqiudi details that it has had +30 million downloads, with the app reporting more 3 million unique daily users.Commenting on the partnership Steve Parish Chairman of Crystal Palace stated “We are delighted to have Dongqiudi as the club’s first shirt sleeve partner. Dongqiudi’s platform gives us a fantastic opportunity to promote Crystal Palace in China whilst giving their brand exposure to the club’s growing international following and the wider global Premier League audience.”Last June Crystal Palace announced its ‘biggest shirt sponsorship to date’ welcoming Asian facing bookmaker ManBetX as EPL 2017/18 ‘Official Club Sponsor’
The first President of Ghana, Dr Kwame Nkrumah was honoured with a Platinum award at the recently held 2014 Glo-CAF Awards in Lagos, recalling his unmatched contributions to the development of football in Ghana and the African continent during his lifetime. In a post-event statement issued by Globacom, sponsors of the annual football awards, Ghana’s first President was eulogised for his visionary steps in building the requisite human and institutional capacity which made Ghana a veritable football powerhouse on the continent within just a few years after its independence in 1957. Dr. Nkrumah held sports, especially football, in high esteem and successfully applied it as a potent tool for national identity and also for marketing his pan-African vision. In 1964, Osagyefo donated money to put up the Osagyefo Cup which was used to launch the African Clubs Championship, charging the then Confederation of African Football (CAF) to organize an enviable African version of the European Cup for club championship with that trophy. At home in Ghana, Dr. Nkrumah personally supervised the building of a formidable national team, the Black Stars, which won the Africa Cup of Nations in 1963 and 1965 and also founded the Ghana Academicals, which was an assembly of the best young talents in the country.Osagyefo Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, in habitual fashion, greets the Black Stars at the Accra Sports Stadium just before the start of an international game. “We are happy to be identified with this man of vision whose steps helped to produce a football super power in Ghana in so few years after the country became independent”, the statement said. “Dr. Nkrumah was an ardent sports enthusiast who promoted football as a sport in his country and on the African continent. As early as 1960, Ghana already had two world class football stadia in Accra and Kumasi and this was responsible in part, for the good showing of Ghana in football on the continent both at the club and national levels”. The statement said that Globacom draws inspiration from leaders like Nkrumah, who was a shining star across many fronts, including his efforts in uniting Africa through the formation of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU). “It is the aggregation of his contributions to humanity that make him a leader to remember and a leader to honour and we are happy that the Confederation of African Football (CAF) noticed this and presented the award,” the statement added. Dr. Nkrumah’s posthumous Platinum Award was received on his behalf by the President of the Ghana Football Association, Kwesi Nyantakyi at Eko Hotel Convention Centre, Lagos, Nigeria.