Researchers from a global collaboration, including Notre Dame faculty and students, presented findings further characterizing the recently-documented Higgs boson on Thursday in La Thuile, Italy. Physics professor Colin Jessop, one of the researchers, called the findings “the biggest discovery of particle physics for the past 50 years.” “We can say with some surety now that the particle that we observed is the Higgs boson, or what some people call the ‘God particle,’” Jessop said. The Higgs boson is a particle created in the high-impact, high-energy collision of protons at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Geneva, Switzerland. CERN is the European Organization for Nuclear Research. Jessop said all objects gain their property of mass through interaction with the Higgs field. “If you create enough energy to interact with this field, you’ll make what’s called a Higgs boson, a particle that is kind of the smoking gun that there’s a Higgs field there,” Jessop said. Jessop said researchers now can confirm that the experimental particle’s basic characteristics, including spin and parity, match those of the theoretical Higgs boson. “In the last six months, we’ve been taking two-and-a-half times more data since July,” he said. ” and the results that we presented [in Italy] were evidence that the particle we discovered behaves exactly as we thought it was going to.” Jessop said the team confirmed the experimental Higgs boson interacts with fermions, the essential components of matter, the way it theoretically should. Until now, Jessop said researchers had not observed interactions between the Higgs boson and fermions. “It’s supposed to interact with everything – that’s how it gives mass,” he said. “So, if there were a set of particles it didn’t interact with, then it wouldn’t have been the Higgs boson we thought it was. … We showed that the Higgs boson interacts with all the particles we thought it should.” Jessop said the findings support evidence scientists in the(Compact Muon Solenoi) Collaboration,nwhich includeg the Notre Dame team, gathered last year that suggesg the existence of the Higgs boson “We started seeing the hints of this about a year ago at this time,” Jessop said. “we started to see some evidence, but not conclusive.”Then the signals got stronger and stronger, and in July we had a big announcement that we had observed something that looked like a Higgs boson, but we weren’t absolutely sure.” Jessop said building accelerators able to supplh enough energy for the proton collision has been the keynobstacle to finding the Higgs boson. “We’ve been looking to try to make one of these Higgs bosons by putting more and more energy into it … but we haven’t been able, as it turns out, to get to sufficient energy until just recently.” Jessop said. Notre Dame sends postdoctoral researchers and graduate students to the LHC for a hands-on experience, Jessop said. “All the people who do the hard work really are the young people, the graduate students and the [post-doctorate studentss,” he said. Postdoctoral research associatr Jeff Kolb said he and graduate students Nil Valls and Doug Berry spent time living in Europe, not just writing computer codes to analyze data, but alsokworking on the experiment’s equipment. In order to be listed as an author, Kolb said students must word for a year on something other than data analysis, among other requirements. Valls said looking for evidence of the Higgs boson was the chief difficulty in analyzing the 20 petabytes (the equivalent of 20 million gigabytes) of data per year.scientists produce at the LHC. “It’s like looking for a needle in a haystack,” Valls said. “Writing code is inevitable, for grad students at least, because that is the best way to sort of look for those needles.” Jessop said Higgs research continues despite the temporary halt of collisions at the LHC to allow upgrades meant to double the energy of the accelerator. Data collections will resume in 2016 and continue througo 2020, he said. the Notre Dame team will continue working to improve the Higgs detector for the program’s second phase from 2023 to 2035. “At the new energy there is a good possibility of further new discoveries in addition to continuing to study the Higgs in detail,” Jessop said. …We’ve had a giant success, but for us it’s kind of a beginning.”
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RelatedPosts Club’s server collapses over ticket demand for first Bundesliga game in 11 years Awoniyi joins Union Berlin on loan Bale completes Tottenham return from Real Madrid Spain’s Prime Minister Pedro Sanchez has given the go-ahead for La Liga to return as soon as June 8.There has been no football played in the country’s top division since Eibar’s game against Real Sociedad on March 10, but there is now optimism it can follow the lead of the Bundesliga, with matches set to resume behind closed doors. Spain has been one of the worst-hit countries in Europe from coronavirus, but with cases now dropping, businesses are gradually re-opening, and football looks set for a comeback in the near future.While Sanchez suggested June 8 as the possible restart date, it appears more likely that June 12 or June 19 will be chosen as the dates for a return.La Liga president Javier Tebas is set to officially confirm the news in the coming days.In response to the news, a statement from La Liga read: “We are very pleased with the decision, it is the result of the great work of clubs, players, coaches, CSD, agents, etc. “But we cannot lower our guard, it is important to follow health regulations and ensure the pandemic doesn’t come back.”La Liga clubs have been back in training since earlier this month, and the Seville derby between Sevilla and Real Betis looks set to be the first game back on the calendar. Barcelona currently top the table with 58 points after 27 games, with Real Madrid just two points behind them.Each team has 11 more matches to play, meaning the season could be concluded in theory by the end of July.Earlier this week Madrid manager Zinedine Zidane said he was confident his side could overtake Barcelona if La Liga is able to return.Speaking to Real Madrid TV, he said: “We have to think positively.“The players see that there are 11 games left (in LaLiga) and they want to finish strongly in order to win a trophy. It’s in the DNA of the club. “I’m happy to be back training with my players after 60 days. We’re all happy to be back. We planned the physical preparation and they worked really well at home. They were in shape.“This week has been very good for working, albeit in small groups. But we can work on a little more tactically. The team looks better this week.”Tags: BundesligaJavier TebasLa LigaPrime Minister Pedro Sanchez
Having been drawn against Barcelona in the knockout stage of the Champions League, Toure has had word from inside the Catalan club’s camp that is not a draw they are relishing. “I had a call from one of my old team-mates from Spain who was quite disappointed,” said the former Barcelona midfielder. “He wasn’t sure what would happen. In the past they would be confident they would go through and beat anyone but they are afraid about us. “The way we are playing at home – and they are seeing that – means they are quite scared because we play fantastic football, we score goals and it is total attack. “At the moment we are terrific at home. Any team who comes here we think we can score against – maybe it won’t always be the case for us to achieve that every game. “We are not the sort of team that is fearful of opponents, we are playing in an attractive way and an attacking way, and I think Liverpool will be aware of that.” City’s home record is formidable as they have won all eight league matches and scored 35 goals and they are only in third place, one point behind Liverpool, because of their inferior away form. Striker Sergio Aguero has scored eight of his 13 league goals at the Etihad Stadium but his calf injury means fans will be denied the chance to see the top-flight’s two leading scorers go head-to-head. Liverpool’s Luis Suarez is in the form of his life with 19 goals in just 12 league games and Toure admits it is difficult to separate the two. “Aguero is unbelievable, he is one of the most important strikers in this league at the moment,” said the Ivory Coast international. “He can always make something happen and his partnership with Alvaro (Negredo) was fantastic for us so at the moment missing him is a big blow for us but we have to deal with it. “Suarez is a brilliant player and this season he is at the top. Him and Aguero are the best strikers in England, no question, and are up there as the best in the world too. “It would have been fantastic to see them on the same pitch in this game; Suarez has everything in his game at the moment. “But Liverpool are a team with other good players too and a good manager. It will be a big, big game.” Press Association Manchester City midfielder Yaya Toure has warned Barclays Premier League leaders Liverpool they should fear a Boxing Day trip to the Etihad Stadium as even Barcelona are afraid of them. The Merseysiders arrive on Boxing Day full of confidence as they are top of the table at Christmas for the first time in five years. They are actually the last club to be in that position and not go on to win the title but despite rising optimism at Anfield, Toure sounded a word of caution.
“I’ve been in the same position as these boys. You have to take your chance when it comes, I’m sure that’s what Michael is telling them too,” he said. “If they get a chance in the game they’ll need to impress and I hope they do because we haven’t got the resources of other countries who can call on 30 or 40 players in a campaign – we’re looking at 22-23 realistically. “Everyone is willing the young lads to come in and impress and they’ve been welcomed with open arms.” Press Association Norwood won the battle for Cristiano Ronaldo’s shirt when Northern Ireland played Portugal in World Cup qualification and is delighted to be sharing a pitch with more big names in the coming days. “It is exciting, I’ll admit it. I’m still like a kid coming in to the squad and it’s great to play against the likes of Edinson Cavani and Diego Forlan,” he said. “They are top-class players and I want to take as much as I can from this tour and put it back into my own career. “I’ve never played a South American team and it’s an experience I want on my CV. Any time you can put yourself up against top-class opposition can only stand us in good stead for the qualifiers. “Every game in the campaign will be tough, as we found out last time. there will be no easy games and no right to win any given game. “Against the bigger nations we are known for performing a lot better so hopefully we can give another good account of ourselves against Uruguay.” There are five uncapped players in Northern Ireland’s travelling party – Trevor Carson, Luke McCullough, Liam Donnelly, Ryan McLaughlin and James Gray. None may have made the cut had O’Neill had a full panel to select from, but Norwood sees their promotion to the senior ranks as a chance to expand the player pool ahead of Euro 2016 qualification in September. Despite being just 23 the Huddersfield player is actually one of the more established figures in a depleted squad that will take on Uruguay on Friday and then Chile on June 4. He became a regular in Michael O’Neill’s first XI during the previous campaign and was eager to continue his development in South America, while the likes of Gareth McAuley, Chris Brunt, Craig Cathcart, Martin Paterson and Jamie Ward opted against making the trip. Northern Ireland midfielder Oliver Norwood admits he still feels “like a kid” when he reports for international duty.
The No. 17 University of Wisconsin women’s soccer team (7–1–1, 1–0–1 Big Ten) tied Northwestern(6–1–2, 0–1–1 Big Ten) 1–1 Friday night and took down Illinois (6–3–0, 1–1–0 Big Ten) in a 1–0 double-overtime thriller Sunday.Up until this weekend, forward Dani Rhodes had yet to score a goal despite an impressive 6-1 Badger record. But, against Illinois, something clicked for the junior who finally found the back of the net. Her first goal of the year came after four shot attempts — all of them on goal.Rhodes’ second-period goal answered a Northwestern score in the 33rd minute by midfielder Michele Chernesky, the first of her season. Both team’s defenses held strong through two overtime periods to end the game in a no-decision.After the game, Head Coach Paula Wilkins praised the team’s tenacity in her conversation with UW Athletics.“I told the team that we have to bring tonight’s effort all the time,” Wilkins said. “This was probably their best game they’ve played all season and that standard is what we’re going to expect every game.”Volleyball: Badgers dominate sets versus Marquette, Illinois State over weekendThe No. 6 University of Wisconsin women’s volleyball team (7–1) came away dominated this past weekend. The Badgers started out Read…Wisconsin’s next match versus Illinois was actually the first half of a doubleheader for the ‘Pac the Mac’ promotion Sunday. Though it delayed the men’s soccer match by a few minutes, it’s hard to imagine they didn’t enjoy the show the Badger women put on.Rhodes stole the show again against the Fighting Illini, nailing a shot in the 103rd minute off a Jordan McNeese assist to seal the game for the Badgers. Her performance through the two matches earned Rhodes Big Ten Offensive Player of the Week honors and it seems Wisconsin’s 2017 scoring leader has regained her form.Up until the game-winner, the Badgers dominated Illinois on shot attempts 16 to four — nine different Badgers got looks at goal. Rhodes and Cameron Murtha led the team with three shots each.Men’s soccer: Badgers compete but come up short versus No. 2 HoosiersThe University of Wisconsin men’s soccer team (2–4–1, 0–1–0 Big Ten) fell in a tight 3–1 contest versus No. 2 Read…Solid defense allowed goalie Jordyn Bloomer to sit comfortably in the box as Illinois only got off two shots on goal the entire game. That being said, Bloomer has recorded three shutouts since taking over as starter this year and has allowed more than one goal in a contest only once versus No. 7 Florida State.Looking forward, the Badgers will continue their Big Ten schedule on the road against Michigan this Thursday and Michigan State Sunday.