Researchers from a global collaboration, including Notre Dame faculty and students, presented findings further characterizing the recently-documented Higgs boson on Thursday in La Thuile, Italy. Physics professor Colin Jessop, one of the researchers, called the findings “the biggest discovery of particle physics for the past 50 years.” “We can say with some surety now that the particle that we observed is the Higgs boson, or what some people call the ‘God particle,’” Jessop said. The Higgs boson is a particle created in the high-impact, high-energy collision of protons at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Geneva, Switzerland. CERN is the European Organization for Nuclear Research. Jessop said all objects gain their property of mass through interaction with the Higgs field. “If you create enough energy to interact with this field, you’ll make what’s called a Higgs boson, a particle that is kind of the smoking gun that there’s a Higgs field there,” Jessop said. Jessop said researchers now can confirm that the experimental particle’s basic characteristics, including spin and parity, match those of the theoretical Higgs boson. “In the last six months, we’ve been taking two-and-a-half times more data since July,” he said. ” and the results that we presented [in Italy] were evidence that the particle we discovered behaves exactly as we thought it was going to.” Jessop said the team confirmed the experimental Higgs boson interacts with fermions, the essential components of matter, the way it theoretically should. Until now, Jessop said researchers had not observed interactions between the Higgs boson and fermions. “It’s supposed to interact with everything – that’s how it gives mass,” he said. “So, if there were a set of particles it didn’t interact with, then it wouldn’t have been the Higgs boson we thought it was. … We showed that the Higgs boson interacts with all the particles we thought it should.” Jessop said the findings support evidence scientists in the(Compact Muon Solenoi) Collaboration,nwhich includeg the Notre Dame team, gathered last year that suggesg the existence of the Higgs boson “We started seeing the hints of this about a year ago at this time,” Jessop said. “we started to see some evidence, but not conclusive.”Then the signals got stronger and stronger, and in July we had a big announcement that we had observed something that looked like a Higgs boson, but we weren’t absolutely sure.” Jessop said building accelerators able to supplh enough energy for the proton collision has been the keynobstacle to finding the Higgs boson. “We’ve been looking to try to make one of these Higgs bosons by putting more and more energy into it … but we haven’t been able, as it turns out, to get to sufficient energy until just recently.” Jessop said. Notre Dame sends postdoctoral researchers and graduate students to the LHC for a hands-on experience, Jessop said. “All the people who do the hard work really are the young people, the graduate students and the [post-doctorate studentss,” he said. Postdoctoral research associatr Jeff Kolb said he and graduate students Nil Valls and Doug Berry spent time living in Europe, not just writing computer codes to analyze data, but alsokworking on the experiment’s equipment. In order to be listed as an author, Kolb said students must word for a year on something other than data analysis, among other requirements. Valls said looking for evidence of the Higgs boson was the chief difficulty in analyzing the 20 petabytes (the equivalent of 20 million gigabytes) of data per year.scientists produce at the LHC. “It’s like looking for a needle in a haystack,” Valls said. “Writing code is inevitable, for grad students at least, because that is the best way to sort of look for those needles.” Jessop said Higgs research continues despite the temporary halt of collisions at the LHC to allow upgrades meant to double the energy of the accelerator. Data collections will resume in 2016 and continue througo 2020, he said. the Notre Dame team will continue working to improve the Higgs detector for the program’s second phase from 2023 to 2035. “At the new energy there is a good possibility of further new discoveries in addition to continuing to study the Higgs in detail,” Jessop said. …We’ve had a giant success, but for us it’s kind of a beginning.”
I guess I’ll be on TMZ in the morning somehow they got a police report with details … Obviously this is not how I wanted my birthday breakfast to start out or my birthday but it is what it is ..A post shared by Earl Thomas III (@earl) on May 6, 2020 at 7:32pm PDTNina Thomas, through her attorney, Jonathan Goins, denied the allegations against her Thursday. She later posted on Instagram that “things happen.” View this post on Instagram MORE: Ray Rice, wife reflect on elevator incidentNina Thomas had tracked down Earl Thomas after logging into his Snapchat account and seeing a video of him with one of the women. The Thomases had argued earlier in the day about Earl Thomas’ drinking, per TMZ’s recounting of the police report. Mrs. Thomas was accompanied by two other women, one of whom, police said, shot cellphone video of the incident, TMZ reported.Later, according to the police report, officers responded to a call for a disturbance at the residence. When they arrived, they observed Nina Thomas chasing her husband around a vehicle while wielding a knife. Earl Thomas was holding the pistol. The knife may have been the same one that one of the women who had accompanied Nina Thomas allegedly brandished during the gun episode.Police defused the situation and began interviewing the couple, which is when they learned of the earlier confrontation, TMZ reported.Nina Thomas was eventually arrested and charged with burglary of a residence with intent to commit aggravated assault with a deadly weapon — family violence, per TMZ. She was later released on bond. A judge ordered her to stay at least 200 yards away from her husband and one of the women who was in bed with him. Earl Thomas was not arrested, TMZ reported. Earl Thomas, who turned 31 on Thursday, said in an Instagram video late Wednesday that the incident was an “altercation.” He said he was trying to “get ahead” of the story after his agent told him TMZ was running with it. He said the story was “really not anybody’s business,” but he also didn’t dispute any of the facts in TMZ’s report. Ravens safety Earl Thomas and his wife, Nina, were the principals in a lengthy domestic dispute last month in Austin, Texas, that included Nina Thomas pointing her husband’s 9mm Beretta pistol at his head, TMZ reported early Thursday.Nina Thomas aimed the weapon at her husband from close range after finding him and his brother, Seth, in bed with other women at an Airbnb in Austin on April 13, according to an Austin police report obtained by TMZ. Earl Thomas wrestled the weapon from his wife, according to TMZ’s account. According to police, Nina Thomas did not realize the pistol was loaded and was looking only to scare her husband. Neither the Ravens nor the NFL had responded to TMZ’s report as of early Thursday. It is presumed the league is investigating, or will investigate, whether Earl Thomas violated its personal conduct policy.The Thomases marked their fourth wedding anniversary last month.Twitter commenters quickly compared Thomas’ situation to that of former Ravens running back Ray Rice, who punched his then-fiancee while the two were inside an elevator at an Atlantic City hotel and casino in 2014. (The two later married.) The NFL suspended Rice for two games but the Ravens eventually released him after video of the punch became public. Rice’s league suspension then became indefinite.