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Physicists study Higgs boson

first_imgResearchers from a global collaboration, including Notre Dame faculty and students, presented findings further characterizing the recently-documented Higgs boson on Thursday in La Thuile, Italy. Physics professor Colin Jessop, one of the researchers, called the findings “the biggest discovery of particle physics for the past 50 years.” “We can say with some surety now that the particle that we observed is the Higgs boson, or what some people call the ‘God particle,’” Jessop said. The Higgs boson is a particle created in the high-impact, high-energy collision of protons at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Geneva, Switzerland. CERN is the European Organization for Nuclear Research. Jessop said all objects gain their property of mass through interaction with the Higgs field. “If you create enough energy to interact with this field, you’ll make what’s called a Higgs boson, a particle that is kind of the smoking gun that there’s a Higgs field there,” Jessop said. Jessop said researchers now can confirm that the experimental particle’s basic characteristics, including spin and parity, match those of the theoretical Higgs boson. “In the last six months, we’ve been taking two-and-a-half times more data since July,” he said. ” and the results that we presented [in Italy] were evidence that the particle we discovered behaves exactly as we thought it was going to.” Jessop said the team confirmed the experimental Higgs boson interacts with fermions, the essential components of matter, the way it theoretically should. Until now, Jessop said researchers had not observed interactions between the Higgs boson and fermions. “It’s supposed to interact with everything – that’s how it gives mass,” he said. “So, if there were a set of particles it didn’t interact with, then it wouldn’t have been the Higgs boson we thought it was. … We showed that the Higgs boson interacts with all the particles we thought it should.” Jessop said the findings support evidence scientists in the(Compact Muon Solenoi) Collaboration,nwhich includeg the Notre Dame team, gathered last year that suggesg the existence of the Higgs boson “We started seeing the hints of this about a year ago at this time,” Jessop said. “we started to see some evidence, but not conclusive.”Then the signals got stronger and stronger, and in July we had a big announcement that we had observed something that looked like a Higgs boson, but we weren’t absolutely sure.” Jessop said building accelerators able to supplh enough energy for the proton collision has been the keynobstacle to finding the Higgs boson. “We’ve been looking to try to make one of these Higgs bosons by putting more and more energy into it … but we haven’t been able, as it turns out, to get to sufficient energy until just recently.” Jessop said.  Notre Dame sends postdoctoral researchers and graduate students to the LHC for a hands-on experience, Jessop said. “All the people who do the hard work really are the young people, the graduate students and the [post-doctorate studentss,” he said. Postdoctoral research associatr Jeff Kolb said he and graduate students Nil Valls and Doug Berry spent time living in Europe, not just writing computer codes to analyze data, but alsokworking on the experiment’s equipment. In order to be listed as an author, Kolb said students must word for a year on something other than data analysis, among other requirements. Valls said looking for evidence of the Higgs boson was the chief difficulty in analyzing the 20 petabytes (the equivalent of 20 million gigabytes) of data per year.scientists produce at the LHC. “It’s like looking for a needle in a haystack,” Valls said. “Writing code is inevitable, for grad students at least, because that is the best way to sort of look for those needles.” Jessop said Higgs research continues despite the temporary halt of collisions at the LHC to allow upgrades meant to double the energy of the accelerator. Data collections will resume in 2016 and continue througo 2020, he said. the Notre Dame team will continue working to improve the Higgs detector for the program’s second phase from 2023 to 2035. “At the new energy there is a good possibility of further new discoveries in addition to continuing to study the Higgs in detail,” Jessop said. …We’ve had a giant success, but for us it’s kind of a beginning.”last_img read more

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Sporting Index hopes not to be wiped out by ‘World Cup wides’ again

first_img Neville Burdock – Sporting IndexTwenty years on from one of their biggest ever losses, Sporting Index has returned with the infamous ‘World Cup wides market’, which saw the spread betting firm lose over half a million pounds in the 1999 Cricket World Cup.The World Cup wides market, pioneered by Sporting Index, was introduced for the first time in 1999 and has been available to punters in every Cricket World Cup tournament since, but traders (as well as bowlers) underestimated how much this would swing in English conditions.That year’s tournament saw the introduction of the white ball in the Cricket World Cup for the first time, and Sporting Index initially predicted there would be 255 wides in the 42-game tournament, which was quickly pounced on by the betting community.After the dust settled on the 979th and final wide of the tournament, Sporting Index traders were left licking their wounds, with the company facing huge losses of £500,000.This year, the trading team returns to the site of its greatest loss, and after 20 years’ experience in the white-ball game, have priced this year’s wides at 715.Prior to the white ball introduction, World Cup teams averaged 8.15 wides each per game, compared to 16.7 per team with the white ball. There was also an average of 817 wides per tournament with the white ball, compared to 300 per game before its adoption.The largest number of wides bowled in a single World-Cup game came in India’s win over Kenya in 1999, with the two sides bowling 52 wides between them.As for the tournament itself, Sporting Index is predicting that there will be 535 total sixes during the tournament and that Eoin Morgan’s England side will contribute 80 of these. The spread betting firm are also estimating that 45 batsmen will score centuries during the 48 matches.Neville Burdock, Head of Trading at Sporting Index, said: “The 1999 Cricket World Cup wides market was an absolute disaster for us, and a real celebration for punters. This year, we are willing to take on the wides market again but will be pricing the total at 715 across the tournament. “With tactical, disciplined bowling more prevalent than ever, we expect significantly less wides than the 979 that stung us 20 years ago, but with a new ball at each end, maybe a few more than the original 255 that was first predicted with the red ball.” Related Articles UK not leaving EU on October 31 trading on exchanges at 97% October 25, 2019 StumbleUpon Share Frankie Dettori rides with Sporting Index  May 29, 2020 Submit Paytm targets number 1 fantasy sports status in India June 18, 2019 Sharelast_img read more

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