WASHINGTON – Spot a bear in the woods, and a different part of your brain will yell “pay attention” than if you were studying bears at the zoo. New research shows it takes one part of the brain to start concentrating and another to be distracted. This discovery could help scientists develop better treatments for attention deficit disorder. “This ability to willfully focus your attention is physically separate in the brain from distracting things grabbing your attention,” said Earl Miller, a neuroscientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He led the study, published in today’s edition of the journal Science. “Now we know these two things are separate, it raises the possibility that we can fix them independently,” Miller said. There are two main ways the brain pays attention: “top down” or willful, goal-oriented attention, such as when you focus to read, and “bottom-up” or reflexive attention to sensory information – loud noises or bright colors or threatening animals. Likewise, there are different degrees of attention disorders. Some people have a harder time focusing, while others have a harder time filtering out distractions. Scientists knew that paying attention involved multiple brain regions but they did not know how, because studies until now have examined one region at a time. Miller hooked painless electrodes onto monkeys to track how two key areas react together when the brain jumps to attention. The monkeys were trained to take attention tests on a video screen in return for a treat of apple juice. Sometimes they had to concentrate, picking out, say, only the left-leaning red rectangle from a field of red rectangles; in the same way, the human brain picks a friend’s face out of a crowd. Other times bright rectangles – the attention-grabbers – flashed off the screen at the monkeys. When the monkeys voluntarily concentrated, the so-called executive center in the front of the brain – the prefrontal cortex – was in charge. But when something distracting grabbed the monkeys’ attention, that signal originated in the parietal cortex, toward the back of the brain. The electrical activity in these two areas began vibrating as they signaled each other. But it was at different frequencies, almost like being at different spots on the radio dial. Sustaining concentration involved lower-frequency neuron activity. Distraction occurred at higher frequencies. So, Miller concluded, scientists one day might find a treatment that essentially turns up or down the volume to boost attention. The study provides the first good look at how these physically distinct brain regions interact to govern at least part of attention, said Dr. Debra Babcock, a neurologist at the National Institutes of Health. “Once we understand how attention works, we’ll understand how better to treat disorders of attention, and Lord knows there are plenty of those,” Babcock said. “This could, in the long term, help us devise therapies.” It makes evolutionary sense that these two types of attention would originate in different areas. Reflexive attention is a more primitive survival tool, while concentration is more advanced. “If something leaps out of the bush at me, that’s going to be really important and I have to react to it right away. Your brain is equipped to notice things salient in the environment,” Miller said. “It takes a truly intelligent creature to know what’s important and focus.”160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!
You could say that Sean has his hands full after 154 foster dogs!Sean and Kate Standing’s home life has literally gone to the dogs.The Churchill couple took in their first rescue dog just 18 months ago.But since then the big-hearted dog-lovers have fostered a staggering 154 displaced dogs. Putting the dogs to sleep is simply not an option for Sean and Kate.Sean gets plenty of affection from his dogs.They have even been forced to build kennels at their home to cope with the growing numbers.Sean, who works closely with Donegal Pet Rescue, said they have always loved dogs.“We just love dogs of all kinds and we’re just happy to be able to help. “We obviously didn’t think we would foster so many dogs but the need is obviously there,” said Sean.The couple operate a strict adoption policy which includes a home visit by Donegal Pet Rescue to see if a family suits the needs of the dog.The dogs will also be micro-chipped and have their vaccinations before being handed over to their new owners.Sean and Kate have built kennels to look after their foster dogs.Despite the huge number of dogs passing through their hands, the Standings have only adopted one dog.Finn, a Scottish Deerhound, has become part of the family. He even has his own Facebook pages which documents his trials and tribulations everyday.“He was in such a poor state when we got him and he came on so much that we simply couldn’t part with him,” said Sean.Ryan McCauley of Donegal Pet Rescue says they would simply not be able to operate without the help of people like Sean and Kate.“We have a number of people who foster but Sean and Kate are very special. “They have saved so many dogs and they really go out of their way to help the dogs and to look after them.“We would be lost without them,” he said.COUPLE ENJOYING THEIR ‘DOGS LIFE’ AFTER FOSTERING 154 PETS! was last modified: January 27th, 2014 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)Tags:ChuchillDonegal Pet Rescuefoster dogsSean Standing